Political Upheaval: a glimpse into racial politics, state political patronage and the future of Malaysia

Since the early 1970s, capitalism and politics have been organised and rationalised in Malaysia in a distinctive way: the principal stated aim being to transform the comparatively disadvantaged social and economic position of ethnic Malays vis-à-vis ethnic Chinese. Promotion of an ethnic Malay business and state bureaucratic class, together with insistence on Malay political supremacy within the ruling Barisan Nasional (BN, or National Front) coalition, were integral to the strategy.

But in spite of initial improvements for ethnic Malays in general, the model’s real power lay in growing capital accumulation opportunities for capitalists that were closely aligned to the dominant BN party —the United Malays National Organisation (UMNO). And as inequality grew, so did BN’s reliance on repression of its opponents and critics. Ethnic and religious nationalism were both used to justify BN rule and discredit challenges to it, but yet this model’s problems would mount.

PARTICIPATION

As explained in Participation without Democracy: Containing Conflict in Southeast Asia, the unequal distribution of costs and benefits of development have exerted political pressures across the region. However, precisely how capitalism is organized affects the bases of support and opposition for particular institutions and ideologies of participation and representation. In neighboring authoritarian Singapore, for instance, the People’s Action Party’s (PAP) interests and ideological dominance link to state capitalism under technocratic rule. Hence, the PAP developed state-controlled consultative institutions and ideologies for incorporating experts, civil society actors and others into public policy deliberations.

Comparable forays in consultative representation in Malaysia were limited and counter-productive. Two national consultative committees—during 1989-90 and 1999-2000—produced governance reform proposals antithetical to the regime’s political patronage systems. As a result, the politically disaffected sought to exploit electoral politics and civil society mobilizations. These peaked under Najib with huge street demonstrations, organised by the Bersih movement pushing for electoral and other institutional reforms.

Malaysia’s May 9 general election result was a shock, ushering in the first change of government in 61 years of independence. To be sure, Prime Minister Najib Razak’s government had been on the nose for years, saved at the 2013 election by massive electoral malapportionment. In 2018, though, the scale and range of obstacles to free and fair elections was unprecedented. These included further racially-skewed boundary changes, barring of key opponents, boosts in phantom voters, deregistration of a major opposition party, and an Anti-Fake News law to blunt debate about Najib’s alleged role in Malaysia’s biggest ever corruption scandal.

Yet still one of the world’s most durable authoritarian governments fell, and the Pakatan Harapan (PH, or Coalition of Hope) formed government. Paradoxically, 92-year-old former authoritarian BN leader, Mahathir Mohamad, is again prime minister.

Mahathir’s political comeback was precipitated by allegations of at least $4.5 billion stolen from the state investment company One Malaysia Development Berhad (1MDB), including almost $700 million siphoned into Najib’s personal bank accounts. Mahathir aligned with Bersih’s call for Najib’s resignation and co-established Parti Pribumi Bersatu Malaysia (Malaysian United Indigenous Party) in direct competition with UMNO, as the authentic champion of Malays. And in early 2017, HP elected Mahathir leader.

It is an unlikely coalition of forces, comprising alienated members of the old political establishment combined with popular reformist forces, that has made this victory possible. Many of the latter seek the dismantling of racial politics and state political patronage: foundational pillars of the prevailing Malaysian political economy. But how much will government change translate then to regime change? This depends on the way that contradictions within this multi-ethnic coalition are resolved or managed, and how the PH’s technocratic, nationalist, democratic and even authoritarian elements play out to lead change.

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Related article: http://www.bbc.com/news/world-asia-44036178

About the author of this blog post: Garry Rodan is Professor of Politics and Director the Asia Research Centre at Murdoch University, Australia. He is also an elected Fellow of The Academy of Social Sciences in Australia.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Political Upheaval: a glimpse into racial politics, state political patronage and the future of Malaysia

Patrice McMahon gives us the lowdown on NGOs on the latest episode of 1869, the Cornell University Press podcast

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In episode 14, Patrice McMahon, associate professor of political science at the University of Nebraska, Lincoln, talks about the role of NGOs in post-conflict peacebuilding. She gives us the history of NGOs as an international force, explains the role they played in the Balkans after the conflict there, and indicates how NGOs have had to professionalize and globalize since then in order to remain relevant.

You can subscribe to 1869 on iTunes and SoundCloud.

And, for easy access, here’s the full list of episodes so far:

Episode 1: Peter Conners talks Dead Heads and the 40th anniversary of the (probably) greatest Grateful Dead concert ever
Episode 2: Glenn Altschuler looks at the history of Cornell University
Episode 3: Suzanne Gordon dives into the issues surrounding veterans’ health care
Episode 4: Gordon Lafer warns us about the power of corporate lobbying
Episode 5: Keith Bildstein waxes lyrical on the beauty of birds of prey
Episode 6: Rosemary Sekora discusses BookExpo and BookCon
Episode 7: Michael McGandy launches Three Hills, our new trade imprint
Episode 8: Jim Lance explains what he wants to acquire and why
Episode 9: Alan Bernstein goes to Hell (well, he gives us some context and history, anyway)
Episode 10: Greg Britton and Zach Gresham reveal what really happened at AAUP17
Episode 11: Sean Malloy breaks down the Black Panthers as an international force
Episode 12: Julia Azari provides the background on presidential mandates
Episode 13: Brandon Keim gets anthropomorphic on us
Episiode 14: Patrice McMahon shows how NGOs got to be so important

If there’s someone you’d like to listen to on an episode let us know by emailing Martyn Beeny or tweeting at the Press.

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Learn more:
The NGO Game: Post-Conflict Peacebuilding in the Balkans and Beyond
by Patrice C. McMahon
$24.95 paperback

Patrice McMahon gives us the lowdown on NGOs on the latest episode of 1869, the Cornell University Press podcast